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Phosgene was sometimes used on its own, but was more often used mixed with an equal volume of chlorine, with the chlorine helping to spread the denser phosgene.
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The Germans, for example, used.9-inch (150 mm) artillery shells.Livens in 1917) body coach discount code was a simple device; an 8-inch (200 mm) diameter tube sunk into the ground at an angle, a propellant was ignited by an electrical signal, firing the cylinder containing 30 or 40 lb (14 or 18 kg) of gas up to 1,900 metres.The British Medical Journal.67 Civilian casualties edit The distribution of gas cloud casualties was not limited to the front.Once gas was introduced, development of gas protection began and the process continued for much of the war producing a series of increasingly effective gas masks.
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University of Washington Press.Romano, James.; Lukey, Brian.; Salem, Harry (2007).When going into combat, gas helmets were typically worn rolled up on top of the head, to be pulled down and secured about the neck when the gas alarm was given.US Army Command and General Staff College Taylor,.Harris, T; Paxman,.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list ( link ) "Photographic Archive of Avonmouth Bristol BS11".Gas alert procedure became a routine for the front-line soldier.Horses and mules were important methods of transport that could be endangered if they came into close contact with gas.If the wind was fickle, as was the case at Loos, the gas could backfire, causing friendly casualties.26 In Britain the Daily Mail newspaper encouraged women to manufacture cotton pads, and within one month a variety of pad respirators were available to British and French troops, along with motoring goggles to protect the eyes.As bromine was scarce among the Entente allies, the active ingredient was changed to chloroacetone.

An Incomplete History of World War.